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Department of the Buferior;

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM.

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

Vole irk.

PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,

WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1880.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Bean, Tarleton WI. A list of European Fishes in the Collection of the United States IN ation all Mars cue ee aoe eee ieie son \- == sala ele om ae a a clnlslninl © amie wile ln inlalml ete lminloa’=miniaimlaie On the Species of Astroscopus of the Eastern United States.....--.------------++------

On the Occurrence of Hippoglossus vulgaris, Flem., at Unalashka and Saint Michael’s, CAS et 1S ae ew le a ate SSE aden amino ots i nyclwlate alee latal= =)m;— =e (a =ichel amet at acetate tals Description of an apparently New Species of eiaiepiatens (G. Athkinsit) from the Schoodie

STE ea leree See can 1 eee acta iam ale cha tn end eala nicl ian nie winleinla mnie go 2 ea Description of a New Tish oo Alaska (Anarrhichas lepturus), with Notes upon other

Species of the Genus Anarrhichas ...-..-.----------+-- +++ sre eere tere cette crete Notes on 2 Collection of Fishes from Eastern Georgia ...-..----------------+------+---- Description of a New Species of Amiurus (A. ponderosus) from the Mississippi River. . ——— Descriptions of Two Species of Fishes, collected by Prof. A. Dugés in Central Mexice.- Descriptions of some Genera and Species of Alas camMbashes: sees steele emiseim ata tala een (See also under Goode and Bean.) Brewer, T. If. Notes on the Nests and Eggs of the Eight North American Species of FAI O11 COR meee seer ee ree lee eter alain a oe SS Geee Cooper, Vi. D., J.G. On the Migrations and Nesting Habits of West-Coast Birds - ------

Coues, U.S, A., Dr. Blliote. Fourth Instalment of Ornithological Bibliography, being

a List of Faunal Publications Relating to British Birds. ......--.-----------+----+-+--+------ Garke, Hi. On the Birds of Heligoland ..--..-.--------------- +--+ 222-222 2-2 r err ree creer Goode, G. Brown. <A Study of the Trunk-Fishes (Ostraciontide) with Notes upon the American Species of the Fémily....--.----.------------++s01+t ee treeeet rt —— A Preliminary Catalogue of the Fishes of the Saint John’s River.and the East Coast of Florida, with Descriptions of a New Genus and Three New Species......-..+------------- Description of a New Species of Amber Fish (Seriola stearnsii) Obtained Near Pens- acola, Bla., by Mr, Silas Sterns. -.-. 2 - 2-25-22 ne ae oe anni a oe rien aoc anne Goode, G. Brown, and Taricton IX. Bean. Description of Alepocephalus bairdii, a New Species of Fish from the Deep-Sea Fauna of the Western Atlantic......----------- Deseriptions of a Species of Lycodes (L. Paxillus), obt ained by the United States Fish BOTTI SS LOT este eco eee wre a otc emia a wy cm = ermal bm a loin pcg ogo Description of a New Species of Liparis (L. ranula), obtained by NG United States

Fish Commission off Halifax, Nova Scotia...-.. +----------------++-------+---- 2502 terre

Catalocue of a Collection of Fishes sent from Pensacola, Fla., and Vicinity, by Mr. Silas Stearns, with Descriptions of Six New Species .-...--------------+--s+--5+552c0077--

Description of a New Genus and Species of Fish, Lopholatilus chameleonticeps, from theisouth ofiNew, Bneland! 2 -22-2-220-<. 2 - = ewes om meee meee eee a aca oe On the Occurrence of Lycodes vahlii, Reinhardt, on La Have and Grand Banks. ..-..---

Catalogue of a pe cuecnion of Fishes epsined in the Gulf of Mexico, by Dr. J. W.

econ Oscar. Notes on New me T80pOdG. «= 5) = accent mee iat eime = ae iil =m lm Jordan, M. D., David S. Notes on Certain Typical Specimens of American Fishes in the British Museum and in the Museum D’ Histoire Naturelle at Paris..---------- Pee see aes Description of New Species of North American Fishes. -----. Meteor eee ae sam seee aaeei = Notes on a Collection of Fishes obtained in the Streams of Guanajuato and in Chapala. Lake, Mexico, by Prof. A. Dugés .....----------------- +--+ 222 cre re rte eee eters cee Widder, U.S. N., J. HR. Report of Experiments upon the Animal Heat of Fishes, made at Provincetown, Mass., during the Summer of 1879, in Connection with Operations of the United States Fish Commission......----------------- 0 eee e ene reer re eee teeter errr ee

HLochkington, W.N. Review of the Plewronectide Of San ranciscOles- see eee. - <= se = Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Fishes from the Coast of California.--..---

Merrill, U.S. A., Dr. James ©. On the Habits of the Rocky Mountain Goat. -..------- Ill

Page.

10

63

67

212 254 256 302

393

306

69 326 283

TV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Pratt, U.S. A., Lieut. BR. EH. List of Names, Ages, Tribe, &c., of Indian Boys and Girls at Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Virginia, Plaster Casts of whose Heads were taken’ by Clark Mills, Esq., March, 1879. ..--/.2.-- sso e --coae ee epee aaceee-- =

Smith, Sidmey 7. Occurrence of Chelura tercbrans, a Crustacean Destructive to the Tim- ber of Submarine Structures, on the Coast of the United States .........--........----.---

Notice of a New Species of the Willemoesia Group of Crustacea (recent Lryontide) - -

Werrill, A. E. No‘ice of Recent Additions to the Marine Invertebrata of the Northeastern Coast of America, with Descriptions of New Genera and Species and Critical Remarks on WER BTSte cece te a eaee senses n{a'oie Sim Syaviatwniblaa/aio Sty c}a.alohble tiers pele tetate [sete eae elias ete atte

Verrili, A. E., and Richard Rathbun. List of Marine Invertebrata from the New

England Coast, Distributed by the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. -.--.. White, ©. A. Descriptions of New Species of Carboniferous Invertebrate Fossils. .......- Descriptions of New Cretaceous Invertebrate Fossils from Kansas and Texes .......-- ns NOLGION LNAOY 7A OTNACH <...28 <2 2c: Bis so8 sb sane eee eee meee soc e oeeetice sc eee Note on Criocardium and Ethmocardium ...,...--+-.-- swale amine nels ca carlo waswicacis as\iseate e a *

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

Is79.

NOTES ON THE NESTS AND EGGS OF THE EIGHT NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF EMPIDONACES,

By T. M. BREWER.

In the following paper are given the measurements of all the eggs of the eight species of Hmpidonax that are in the collections of the Smith- sonian Institution, and also those in my own, and also a few others. Three of these species, H. minimus, obscurus, and hammondi, so far as is known, have eggs that are cfonnl of an unspotted white. If ever spotted, they are so very rarely and so very slightly as hardly to con- stitute really an exception. In another species, flaviventris, of w hich, so far as I am aware, only five or six well-identified sets have been se- cured, at least two well-identified sets have been taken that are entirely of an unspotted white color, the others being all more or less spotted and marked. All the remaining four species, traitlii, acadicus, pusillus, and difficilis, have eggs strongly marked, though, among them all, eges are occasionally found that are of an Hq white, or marked with very minute spottings. In the following brief mention I chiefly con- fine myself to the size of each egg, its locality, and the authority for its identification, if the record has been preserved. :

Empidonax hammondi, Baird.

Pour eggs in Museum of Comparative Zodlogy, Cambridge (No. 1681), from Blue River, Colo., Edwin Carter, measure .62 x 52; .60 x 54; .62 X 02; .64 x .53, averaging about .62 x .53.*

T. M. B.'s cabinet No, 1921. Anderson River. MacFarlane. .67 x .52; tooVx .D1.), :

The first set is smaller and more rounded than average eges of E. minimus, but they are otherwise indistinguishable. None are spotted. Empidonax obscurus, Baird.

Smithsonian No. 15875. Utah. Ridgway. .71 x .55. Ground-color an immaculate dead white.

Smithsonian No. 13592. Austin, Nev. Ridgway. .72x.55; .7

Smithsonian No. 2335. Dodge Valley, Utah. McCarty. .70 x .55; 2x .54,

*T am indebted for these measurements to Mr. J. A. Allen.

Proc. Nat. Mus. 79 1 April 29,1879.

2 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

T. M. B. Ne. 999. ‘Arizona. Dr. Palmer. .76 x .585°274 x54.

T. M. B. No. 1760. Utah. Ridgway. .75 x .58; .70 x .64.

Greatest length .77, least .70; greatest breadth .58, least .54. Gen- eral average of all the examples .73 x .55.

Empidonax difficilis, Baird.

Smithsonian No. 17593. San Francisco, Cal, Samuel Hubbard. .70 x .52; .65x.50; .68 x .50; average .68 x .51. The ground-color of these three examples is a creamy white, almost a dead white, and they are chiefly spotted around the larger end with markings of a brownish red and a few faint spots of lavender. The color of the markings of this set has no resemblance whatever to those of 13440 (£. flaviventris) when carefully compared.

T. M. B. No. 665. Monterey, Cal.. Dr. Canfield. .76 x .59; .74 x .59. Spotted with light-brown markings, on a creamy ground, the markings being exclusively around the larger end.

T. M. B. No. 2960. SantaCruz, Cal. William A-Cooper. The female parent was shot by Mr. Cooper, and was sent to Washington for identi- fication. The nest was in a hollow in a bank, covered with roots and bushes. Incubation just begun, May 4, 1878. .69 x .50; .69 x .51; .70 x .52; .69x.52. These four eggs, as indeed nearly all of the eggs of this species that I have ever seen, are conspicuously marked with vivid light reddish-brown spots. In three of this set they are chiefly on the larger end; in one the markings are distributed over the whole egg. Ground- color a creamy white.

T. M. B. No. 2959. Nicasio, Marin County, Cal. C. A. Allen. The female parent was shot by Mr. Allen and identified by Mr. Ridgway. 70 x 53; .70 x 54; 65 x.54; .70 x .55. Marked with large bright red- brown spots, chiefly about the larger end. ‘This nest was also built in a cavity.

T. M. B. No. 2728. Santa Cruz,Cal. Geo. H. Ready. Sent me as BE. pusillus, but evidently a wrong identification. The nest was on a horizontal sycamore limb, ten feet from the ground. .68 x .55; .70 x .57; o10 & 201 5) 00 X Dd.

T. M. B. No. 2890. Haywood, Cal. Dr. J.G.Cooper. May 25, 1877. 10x 55; .70 x 55; 66x .55; .68 x .52. The last-mentioned egg is of a very nearly unspotted white.

T. M. B. No. 3053. Santa Cruz, Cal. Geo. H. Ready. April 22,1877. Nest on the lower limb, at the extremity, of a sycamore, ten feet above the ground. .66x .52; .65x .53; .67x.53. These eggs are, with hardly. a doubt, those of HL. difficilis, though mistaken by Mr. R. for pusillus. Their ground-color is pure creamy white. The spots are few, small, and of a more than usually faint brown, disposed in rings around the larger end, the residue of the egg being unspotted.

In 24 examples, the greatest length is .76, least .65, average .69; great- est breadth .59, least .50, average .54.

PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 3

Empidonax pusillus, Cabanis.

Smithsonian No. 16305. Snake River. Merriam. .76 x .52; .75 x .50.

Smithsonian No. 15210. Parley’s Park, Utah. Robt. Ridgway. .77 KO) 310 X DD se 13% .O8~

Smithsonian No. 15207. From the same. .64x.49; .70x.51; .64x.52.

Smithsonian No. 12982. Sacramento, Cal. Ridgway. .70 x 52; .74 x09 5) 10 x D4: 10 x .O2.

Smithsonian No. 8543. Vancouver Island. Hepburn. .74 x .50.

T. M. B. No. 960. Northern California. Hepburn. .72 x .58; .73 x DOs ho K oe

T. M. B. No. 2119. Lake Koskonong, Wis. Thure Kumlien. Both parents secured. .68 x .52; .71 x .54.

By the kindness of Mr. H. W. Henshaw I am enabled to give a measurements of two sets of eggs taken by him near Honey Lake, Cal., iz the summer of 1878, June 25. The first set of three eggs has an un- usually pinkish tinge to the cream-colored ground, and around the larger end is a beautiful wreath of markings of a light lilac-brown blending with others of reddish brown. These eggs measure .75 X .00; .74 X 083 OX wo.

The other set of four eggs have a nearly pure white ground, and are marked around the wider portion of the egg with small red-brown and a few lilae-brown spottings of a rounded shape. The rest of each egg, including the larger end, has an unspotted surface. One egg has only a very few very fine dottings, and is very nearly pure white. Their meas- urements are 69 x .55; .68 x .54; .70 x .05;-.71 x .58.

All the eggs of this species have a certain family resemblance, which it is easy to recognize at sight, but very difficult to describe distinguish- ingly. They are all more or less marked with small, rounded spots, rarely blotched, and the markings ave, some of them, much more minute than is usual in any other species. The spots are also scattered more about the entire egg, or, if confined, are chiefly on the larger portion of the circumference, and never, or certainly rarely, confluent.

Mr. Henshaw informs me that he has examined at least twenty-five nests of this species (pusillus), and that with only one exception they have all been built in willows. The nest before me, taken by Mr. H. near Honey Lake, June 25, 1877, is a well-woven structure, made of thin strips of the inner bark of deciduous trees, broken bits of dry grasses, lichens, &c., and is lined with fine grasses and hair. It is pyramidal in shape, tapering to a point at the base, and is 44-in external height and d+ in external breadth. The cavity is two inches deep. It contained the set of four eggs referred to above.

The exception referred to by Mr. Henshaw was a nearly completed nest of this species, found June 17, that was placed in a crotch of a swinging grape:vine. Its structure is said to have been unusually neat and firm for a Flyeatcher’s. (Wheeler’s Report, 1876, p. 255.)

4 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

Empidonax traillii, Baird.

Smithsonian No. 4036. East Bethel, Vt. C. Paine. .74x 02; 74x

Oe 0 X,005 od X 02

Smithsonian No. 7330. Fort Resolution. Lockhart. .80 x .575 .75 KOO sislo R003 12 K-00,

Smithsonian No. 8859. The same. .80 x .55; .80 x .55.

Smithsonian No. 4052. Three Rivers, Canada. Reikoff. .79 x .57.

Smithsonian No. 4395. Great Slave Lake. Lockhart. .79 x .57;

14 x .55.

Smithsonian No. 1229. Williamstown, Mass. Hopkins. .70 x .53; 70x 555 .72 x 04.

Smithsonian No. 1819. Winnebago, UL .70x.55; .68x.55. Thi is an almost unspotted white.

T, M. B. No. 412." Gorham, N. H. -T. M. B.. .73 x 49:

T. M. B. No. 413. E. Bethel, Vt. Paine. .76 x .50; .72 x .49.

T. M. B. No. 438. Coventry, Vt. Knight. .70 x .52.

T. M. B. No. 1978. Catskill Mountains, N. Y. Dr. James C. Merrill. 2 x 53; .70 x .52. One of these is very nearly an unspotted white.

T. M. B. No. 1006. Coventry, Vt. .75 x .57.

TT. M. B. No. 2632. Milan, N. H. Welch. © .79.x/.60; .79 x .60.

T..M. B. No. 3054. Randolph, Vt. Prince. .73 x .58; .72 x .00;

~~

X wi.

set

R

Empidonax flaviventris, Baird.

Smithsonian No. 13219. Halifax, N. S.. Downes. Received with parent. .74 x .53. Of a uniform dead chalky white. The other eggs of this set measured .73 x .55 and .75 x .54.,

Smithsonian No. 13440. St. Stephen, N. B. Geo. A. Boardman. Parent secured and identification perfect. The nest is small; had been built in a low bush; its breadth internally is 1.90 inches, depth 1.25; external diameter 3 inches, depth 1.75. It is conaimasted ot flaxdike fibres, fine shreds of the inner bark of deciduous trees, a few fine grasses mingled with feathers, and lined with horse-hair, downy feathers, and fine grasses. The eggs measure .75 x .04; .75 x .03; .76 x .55. Their original number was four. They have a ground-color of a pure white, with blotch-like spots on the larger end, of purplish drab and umber-brown, mixed with scattered black markings, but without a tinge of red, and are unlike any other eggs of this genus that I have ever seen. :

y. M..B.-No. 416. Centre Harbor; Neo. WM. Bo 10: 256-274 x. 08; 67 x .55. One of these unspotted; two of them marked with small spots of purple drab.

T. M. B. No. 418. Halifax, N.S. Downes. .69 x .55. This egg and the two others in this set were of a nearly pure chalky white, with a few faint spots, so slight as, at first, to be overlooked. The parent se- cured and sent with the eggs. I exclude from this list the set secured by me in Grand Menan, referred to below, as, although the identifica-

PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 5

tion was apparently satisfactory, it was not placed beyond doubt by securing the parent. The eggs averaged .68 x .53. Neither in size, shape, nor in the shade of ground-color, did they at all resemble any fresh eggs of H. minimus that I have ever seen.

- In these ten specimens, the greatest length is .76, the least .67, aver- age .73; the greatest breadth is .58, the least .53, average .50.

Since the above was written, my friend Mr. Wm. A. Jeftries has pro- cured for me, through the courtesy of Mr. Deane, the measurements of the four eggs procured by the latter in Maine, and described by Mr. Purdie. These measure .70 x 55; .70 x .55; .65 x .52; .70 x .55, and re- duce the average to .72 x .55. The eggs are described by Mr. Jeffries as of pure white ground, with markings in two eggs of fine dots; in the others, small irregular blotches, of a light red-brown, not so deep or so bright as in difficilis; mingled with these are a few markings of lilac, The ground-color appears to have lost the rosy tint mentioned by Mr. P. in the first description, in which, too, no mention is made of the lilac- colored spots.

Through the kindness of Mr. Osborne I have also been enabled to examine one of the eggs contained in the nest of this species found by him in Grand Menan. It measures .70 x .56, and agrees exactly with the description given by him, except that there is a slight roseate tinge in the white ground. The spots are a light reddish brown, and the egg is undistinguishable from several eggs in my collection of H. difficilis. it is very different from the eggs identified by Mr. Boardman.

Mr. Osborne writes me that none of this set differ more than 54,5 in their measurements, and that in their color the only points in which any differ from the one described are the lighter shade of the ground-color and the larger size of the blotches.

Empidonax acadicus, Baird.

Smithsonian No. 10039. Maryland. Slack. .77 x .57.

Smithsonian No. 3430. Marion County, W. Va. Morgan. .67 x .57; O5ix.025, 08° X 005. .10 X 03; .74.x 06; (0x .06; .67-x O75 63 x 52; 63. x.003:..7D:& 035.74 x 06; .70 x .06.

Smithsonian No. 2018. Philadelphia. McIlvaine. .76 x .58; .71 x .56.

Smithsonian No. 1959. Locality not given. .75 x .55; .72 x .57.

Smithsonian No. 2128. Northern Georgia. Dr.Gerhardt. .77 x .57; Ml x 09,

Smithsonian No. 13470. Loeality not given. .76 x .55.

Smithsonian No. 17607. Washington, D.C.. H. W. Henshaw. .74x 04; 70 x 5D; .72 x .55.

Smithsonian No. 1681. Halifax, Va. .82 x .55.

T. M. B. No. 2735. Staten Island, N. Y. 8S. D. Osborne. June 5, 1575. .81 x .60; (nearly unspotted) .S0 x .59; .79 x .59.

1 M:5..No: 10105). Indiana. . Geo. Welch: 78 x..58;.78 x 60; .77 x 09; 7D x .58.

In these 31 examples the greatest length is .82, the least .67, the mean

é

6 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

.74; the greatest breadth .60, least .52, average .56. The eggs of this species uniformly have a ground-color of a creamy white, or a deep cream-color, and when fresh have a slight roseate tinge. In a few in- stances the markings are almost, though never wholly, wanting. The eges of this species so closely resemble those of traillit as to be indis- tinguishable; but they may be readily told from those of pusillus.

Empidonax minimus, Baird.

’The ground-color of the eggs of this species, as a general rule, is a uniform unspotted white, a creamy white when fresh, fading into a dead white when long exposed to the light and air. In one set of two eggs, both examples are faintly marked with dark or blackish-brown spots. In all the other instances I have seen where eggs of this species seemed to be spotted, the markings have had rather the appearance of stains than genuine natural characters. ;

Smithsonian No. 3771. Lynn, Mass. Welch. .65 x 48; .66 x .50.

Smithsonian No. 12770. E. Windsor Hill, Conn. Dr. Wood. .64 x 48; 65x .50; .64 x .50; .65 x .50.

Smithsonian No, 8715. The same. .66 x .51; .65 x .50; .67 x .50; 65 x 50; .66 x .53.

Smithsonian No. 16677. Pembina. D. Gunn. .67 x .49; .65 x .50; .66 x .48.

Smithsonian No. 10485, Fort Resolution. Lockhart. .63 x .47; .65 00; .65 x .48.

Smithsonian No. 8861.. The same. .69 x .50; .69 x .49; .68 x .48.

Smithsonian No. 2193. Randolph, Vt. Paine. .67 x .52.

Smithsonian No. 15030. Racine, Wis. Dr. Hoy. .60 x .50; .61 x .51. Both of these examples are slightly spotted with a very dark or black- ish brown.

Smithsonian No. 6212. Fort Resolution. Lockhart. .70 x .52; .65 x OL; .63 x 0250.01 023 67 seed,

Smithsonian No. ——. Pembina. D. Gunn. .60 x .52; .65 x .51; 63 x 52; .64 x .50.

Smithsonian No. 14562. Lynn. Welch. .62 x .50; 64x .51; 65x 49; .65 x .49.

Smithsonian No. 1854. The same. .62 x .52; .65 x 52; .60 x .52.

Smithsonian No. 2985. -Sing Sing, N. Y. .64 x .52.

Smithsonian No. 153447. Calais, Me. Boardman. .64x.52; 65x .49; 64x 51; .65 x .48.

Smithsonian No. 1973. Connecticut. Dr. Wood. .62 x .49; .70x 50; .O7 x .48.

Smithsonian No. 4097. Great Slave Lake. Lockhart. .63 x .51; Ganau; .65 x 150s 62 x 51.

a

T. M. B. No. 240. New Britain, Conn. Moore. .60 x .49; .62 x .52. T. M. B. No. 1262. -Lynn. Welch. .64 x .50; .66 x .50. T. M. B. No. 226. The same. .66x.52; .65x .50; 64.50; .64 x .50.

PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. it

T. M. B. No. 3055. E. Bethel, Vt. Prince. .63 x .49; .60 x .50; 59x OO OL x (50)s2 6.50565: x 50.

In these 61 examples the extreme length, in two instances, is .70, the least .57, and the mean .64; extreme breadth O2, least .47, mean 50.

RECAPITULATION.

‘Reet | 3 :

a ~ n

t= = 4 a 4

Fale |e ce | eect goa Nhe Se ae

2 a a 2 H = a

A =) = = a a 2

o +42 Zz 5 tH

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“A o o A 2 g 2

3 4H A ea] A A 4 AEE : i HEM WaRNID ONO ee seamen ere) manasa ace nisl e eines - 68) G0) .64:| 2.54) 51 | 252 6 EPPOUSC UNIS eee eens on Sania ona. eo aecsen caeeeneee Werte 270M RTS ale Sh mmetade [emer 5 9 Pit CUS eee ese ere eine se ace ae oie seseaer oa eee: le oiGh G5) 369)! 59) lee SO lpr 24 IE SDS UNOS ts tae eee eee acca) se'n= ee cae a niellele ata a -78 | .64) .72) .59| .40) .55 25 Rea np N pe eyes se esse as epee eisoixta e's) ato ~ nate ernrgeimiside’e delays | .80 . 68 lh = 74.) .60 49 . 54 31 EHH ivi he MURS Weert eae cia oe cea tain rao Meera eee ceo | -76| .65| .72| .58) .521 .55 15 Ass MAC CUSt eee <= seem aieieisc = <n Soh(sjn eerie owes ce eisjetsicisio| Oo Om) teal = OO) |) 52056 31 PERDUE S te se eee eee Se aera ac Soa e oct ela emanates ance -70 | .57 | . 64 | OLm|h TAM ee tO) 61 Mr. 8. D. Osborne (B. N. O. C. iii, 187) describes the nest and eges

found in a hummock of moss on ae island of Grand Menan, the parent of which was procured, and was by him identified as 2. flaviventris. “The cavity extended in about two inches, was about four inches in depth, and was lined with a very few fine grasses, black hair-like roots, and skins of berries. The eggs, four in number, are white, with a very delicate creamy tint, which differs in its intensity in the different speci- mens, and are spotted, mostly at the larger end, with a few dots and blotches of a light reddish shade.”

Hight days later than Mr. Osborne’s discovery, and in a ee locality, Messrs. Deane and Purdie secured another nest and set of eggs, ended as of the same species, in Houlton, Me. This, ae was “in a ball of green moss.” “The lining was mainly of fine black rootlets, with a few pine needles and grass stems.” “The eggs, four in number, were perfectly fresh, rounded oval in shape, and of a beautiful rosy- white tint, well spotted with a light reddish shade of brown.” (B. N. O. C. iii, 166.)

Mr. Osborne remarks that ‘there are several nests of this bird in different collections, the identities of most, if not all, of which are dis- puted”; and he adds, “the descriptions given by Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, agree very well with the nests of the Traill’s Flycatcher,” Wc. The first clause is so vague as to make it doubtful to what nests he may refer. So far as I am aware, prior to 1878 only four or five nests of this bird had been procured, and of these three at least are as well and as completely identified as are those of either Mr. Osborne’s or Mr. Pur- die’s. Their authenticity is as indisputable.

Mr. Purdie also assumes, ‘so great is the variation,” “that there was some error of identification”; and finally refers the eggs to the Least Flycatcher, and cites Mr. Ridgway as authority. But Mr. Ridgway, on

8 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

the contrary, accepts them as genuine eggs of flaviventris in his recent report (p. 544), whatever may be their resemblance to those of £. minina ; and he so accepts them still* In fact, there is no more reason why we should reject the identification of these nests and eggs, than for our refusing to credit the statements of Messrs. Osborne, Purdie, and Deane. In either case the identification was complete, and the differ- ences in the nest, if of any real moment, tell as much against the one as the other. Mz. Boardman’s and Mr. Downes’s birds were submitted to Prof. Baird, and have had his verification in addition.

In June, 1850, I met with a nest which I then had no doubt belonged to this species. It was in a low bush on Grand Menan, near the water. My nephew H. Rk. Storer, then a lad of sixteen, was with me. Both parents were seen, and the male was carefully observed through a good glass; the female, when first seen, was on the nest; a male, apparently its mate, was near by. Unfortunately, in the attempt to secure one of the parents, it was missed, and the birds became so wild that neither could be secured. We were obliged to leave the island and to take the nest without further identification, but we had no doubt as to the iden- tity. The eggs were white, not cream-color, more oblong and larger than the average eges of H. minima.

A few weeks later, the same year, I received, among other nests and eggs, collected near Halifax by Mr. Andrew Downes, two nests and two sets of eggs, with the parent of each, of flaviventris. The parents were sent to Prof. Baird, and by him identified as LZ. flaviventris. There were no notes as to the position of these nests; they were mere collee- tions of broken grasses, and it is not improbable they had been built in hollow places. There was, at least, nothing to show to the contrary. Their authenticity there is no reason to question. The following sum- mer a nest with three eggs and its parent were taken in Centre Harbor, two of the eggs being spotted. The same summer Mr. Boardman pro- cured the nest, four eggs, and the parent bird referred to above as now in the Smithsonian collection. These eggs do not at all correspond, in the color of their markings, to the descriptions given of the sets found in 1878.

Entire reliance cannot be placed upon mere differences in the con- struction of nests to prove difference of species. However remarkable this may be, it is anything but conclusive. It will be seen that just the same differences are noted in the descriptions of the nesting of HL. dificilis. While two are noted as built in holes in banks, correspond- ing with those of the recent examples of flaviventris, others were built near the extremities of sycamore limbs ten feet from the ground. Mr. J. A. Allen (B. N. O. C. iii, p. 25) speaks of the Z. acadicus building a much ruder nest than /. minimus, and most probably the specimens before him justified his conclusions; but my experience would lead me to reverse their relative positions. In fact, both of these species vary greatly in their architecture, the Acadian most of all, and no one, but

* But see these Proceedings for 1878, p. 425, footnote.—R. R. oD ) ?

PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. g

for his positive knowledge of their specific identity, could suppose that a certain flat platform-nest of one pair; the deeply-hollowed nest, with its remarkable border of chevaus de fris, of another; and, again, the beautiful pensile nest, like a Vireo’s, of a third, were all nests of this same species acadicus.

The differences in the color of the eggs identified as those of flavi- ventris are, perhaps, more unusual and remarkable, certainly to their extent. Here are two well-identified sets, those from Halifax, of an unspotted white; another set, but slightly spotted; then Mr. Board- man’s set, strongly marked, but very differently from the eggs belong- ing to the two most recently identified nests. The eges of hammondt and obscurus are plain white, and no record exists of any spotted ex- ample of either. The same is almost equally true of minimus. In sixty- one eggs, only two are found with even faint spots; but this exception may show the possibility of there being more variations than we are now aware of. Among the eggs of diffcilis a single specimen occurs of very nearly unspotted white. The same is true of one egg of £. pusillus. Among the eggs of EL. traillii unspotted eggs are comparatively more common. Among my eges of BL. acadicus there is also oue very nearly an-unspotted white. So that these variations in nests and im color of eges cannot be received as necessarily conclusive as against such positive identifications as those of Mr. Boardman’s and Mr. Downes’s examples.

If we take the product of the average length multiplied by its aver- age breadth at the point of the largest diameter as a proximate test of the relative size of the eggs of each species, we find the following result:

PN CACC ISR See a oops Nes a ior a as Sve vee 414s COU SCUT US aca ts oe are ee eee 4015 Elraibieey eee tee a ee Sloe gee OP Ta 3996 Wilaevinve mihi Ge st oie oi discs po ee a eee . 3960 UST ee cae =, os SE eee 3930 Cultist a. atl, sc. Ae ees 3426 Team TIT Cs soe sya wo ee eee 3028 WHTIGISS 28. 2. c= Ss ce 2 Seer 3200

Since the above was in type, Mr. Charles A. ‘Allen of Nicasio, Cali- fornia, has furnished me with some very interesting and apposite notes on the nidification of Empidonax diffcilis, demonstrating the remarkable variations that may exist in regard to the position and structure of the nests of one and the same species of birds. After mentioning that he has taken and identified some forty or fifty nests of this species, he adds:

“T find EB. diffcilis breeding in all situations. Sometimes I find them on the curled root of a tree on the banks of a stream or brook, not over six inches above the water; again I find them in the jagged end of some half-submerged log in mid-stream; again within the loose bark of a tree, no matter what kind, nine or more feet up; again I find them ina

10 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

cavity in some decayed tree or limb, or in any kind of depression that gives a base to begin to work on. I also find them in out-houses, or buildings removed from dwellings, on the rafters, or on any spot where they can stick their nest. They are also very common under bridges, and I have found four built in the forks of small trees, some four or tive feet up. These were all the same veritable L. difficilis.”

A LEST OF EUROPEAN FISHES IN THE COLLECTION OF THE UNETED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

By TARLETON Hi. BEAN.

About 350 nominal species are mentioned. Since the list is intended shnply to facilitate the exchanges between the United States National Museum and museums in Europe, no attempt has been made to distrib- ute the names in accordance with the latest knowledge concerning the classification and specific identity of the species in question. The names given to them by those who presented them are, with few exceptions, retained.

One species (Gasterosteus Blanchardi, Sauvage), which was described from specimens sent to Paris from Boston, United States, is referred to Gasterosteus pungitius, Linn. (= Pygosteus occidentalis, (C. & V.) Breevort), with which it is identical.

The numbers at the left are those of the National Museum Catalogue ; those at the right were attached to the fishes when they were received.

Class, PISCES. Order, PLECTOGNATHI. Family, TETRODONTID &.

Tetrodon marmoratus, Ranzani. 10208. Canaries. Vienna Museum. (14.)

Family, BALISTID 2.

Monacanthus filamentosus, Val. 10217. Canaries. Vienna Museum. (34.)

Order, LOPHOBRANCHII. Family, HIPPOCAMPID &.

Hippocampus brevirostris, Cuy.

21122. La Rochelle. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (22.)

Hippocampus comes, Cantor.

21163. Madagascar. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (63.)

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Tt

Hippocampus abdominalis, Lesson.

21169. Australia. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (69.) Hippocampus guttulatus, Cuv.

21121. Naples. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (21.)

21164. Sicily. Mus. d@’Hist. Nat. Paris. (64.)

Family, SYNGNATHID 4.

Syngnathus phlegon, Risso.

21124. Nice. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (24.) Synenathus acus, Linn.

17490. Bergen, Norway. Norwegian Government. (152.)

22022. Christiania, Norway. R. Collett.

22023. Christiania, Norway. KR. Collett. Syngnathus rubescens, [isso.

21123. Nice. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (23.) Syngnathus abaster, Risso.

21113. La Rochelle. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (13.) Syngnathus Agassizii, Michahelles.

21112. Nice, France. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (12.) Syngnathus pelagicus, Linn.

12566. Dr. J. E. Gray. British Museum. (80.) Siphonostoma typhle, Linn.

12620. Europe.

12520. Europe. (256.)

17489. Bergen, Norway. Norwegian Government. (131.)

21119. France. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (19.)

12519. Constantinople. Siphonostoma Rondeletii, De la Roche.

21118. Marseilles. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (18.) Siphonostoma pyrois, Itisso.

6056. Europe.

Nerophis equoreus, Linn.

17491. Bergen, Norway. Norwegian Government. (133.)

22019. $. 2. Stavanger, Norway. R. Collett. Nerophis ophidion, Linn.

21114. Algeria. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (14.)

22020. Christiania, Norway. KR. Collett.

Nerophis papacinus, Risso.

2969,

Europe. Bonaparte Collection. (258.)

12 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

Nerophis teres, Rathke. 21116. Crimea. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris.” (16.)

Nerophis lumbriciformis, (Willughby) Kroyer. 21115. La Rochelle. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (15.) 22024. (“ Seyphius lumbriciformis, (Willughby) Nilss.”) Stavan- ger, Norway. RK. Collett.

Nerophis annulatus, (Risso) Giinth.

21117. Nice. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (17.)

Order, PEDICULATI. Family, LopHip 2.

Lophius budegassa, Spinola. 12683. Europe. Bonaparte Collection.

Order, TELEOCEPHALL.

Family, SOLEIDZ. Solea vulgaris, Quensel.

12514. Cast. London, England.

21177. France. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (77.)

17324. Helsingburg, Sweden. Swedish-Centennial Commission. (38.)

22033. Christiania, Norway. R. Collett.

17354, Bergen, Norway. Norwegian Government. (87.)

0913. Locality unknown.

Solea ocellata, Linn.

10204. Canaries. (44.)

Solea lascaris, Risso. 7 10091. Europe. Bonaparte Collection. (172)

j Solea lutea, Risso.

10067. Europe. L. Agassiz. Ammopleurops lacteus, (Bon.) Giinth.

10092. Europe. Bonaparte Collection. Microchirus linguatula, (Thompson).

10070. Europe. Bonaparte Collection. (36.)

Family, PLEURONECTID&.

Pleuronectes platessa, Linn. 21175. France. Mus. d’Hist. Nat. Paris. (' 10061. Christiania, Norway. R. Collett.

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